Dutch Parliamentary Election Surveys (DPES)

The Research Project.

The Dutch Foundation for Electoral Research (Dutch acronym: SKON) aims to explain elections, electoral behavior, and democratic legitimacy in the Netherlands for scientific and societal purposes. SKON is a joint organization of political scientists, sociologists, and communication scientists from various Dutch universities and the Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP).

You can find the website of SKON at

Since 1972 SKON organized the Dutch Parliamentary Election Studies (DPES) for every election of the Dutch Lower House. These surveys also embed the modules by the international collaboration of electoral researchers CSES (Comparative Study of Electoral Systems). Between 2014 and 2022 I was co-director of the DPES (in 2017 with Henk van der Kolk, in 2021 with Marcel Lubbers, Kristof Jacobs, and Niels Spierings).

Since 2016 SKON organizes Local Election Studies (DLES). The first (in 2016) was set up and directed by Henk van der Kolk and myself. Later editions were organized by various consortia.

Since 2021 SKON organizes Provincial Election Studies (director: Hans Vollaard).

Additionally, in 2016 and 2018 SKON organized two panel surveys to examine the two nation-wide referendums organized under the short-lived Dutch corrective referendum law (director: Kristof Jacobs).

Please visit data archive DANS to access the Dutch data sets. Please visit to access the comparative data.


Until 2017 the parliamentary election studies were organized predominantly by face-to-face closed survey interviews on a fresh random sample of the Dutch population. The 2017 mixed mode survey showed the conditions under which it would be possible to switch to online data collection.

From 2021 onwards, the DPES moved to online surveys (fresh random sample + LISS panel). This allows the option to reintroduce the multi-wave element of the study. Between 2017 and 2021 this switch also allowed us to re-introduce a multi-year panel element to the study. SKON offers a 6 wave panel data set collected between 2017 and 2021.

The local and provincial election surveys and referendum surveys were all organized as online questionnaires embedded in the LISS-panel.